社区应用 会员列表 统计排行 搜索

  • 1126阅读
  • 1回复

开放杂志:移民美國的宋彬彬家族

楼层直达
级别: 管理员


中共元老宋任窮的八個子女有五個居住在美國,其中三女已入籍美國,一子有美國綠卡。18大後,彭博社採訪宋家二三代包括宋彬彬的文革後動態。是一份獨特可信的資料。




●中共元老宋任窮(夫婦,前坐)與子孫1980 年合影於北京。後排左起:宋克荒、曹曉春、宋米勒( 手抱)、宋京波、宋昭昭、宋勤、??、宋彬彬(抱子JinYan)。(彭博社)

這個穿著豹紋拖鞋來開門的中年中國女子站在門口為讓客人等待而道歉,據她說她正在鍛煉身體。兩隻迷你小狗像一雙拖鞋一樣趴在她的腳上。這個磚瓦結構的房子有一個精心修剪的草坪,灌木叢很好的把她家和鄰居區分開來。這是一幢位於在密西根州安娜堡市郊外的富人區普通的豪宅,和周圍的建築沒什麼兩樣。

宋昭昭:來自中國頂層的貴族


她就是宋昭昭,髮型簡潔,舉止文靜,現在是密西根大學醫院的一名護士,年薪大約八萬二千美元。她和她的美國先生Alan住在這棟房子裡,她先生為福特汽車工作。儘管她看起來是個普通的美國中產階級,但是你不能用普通來形容她,別的什麼都可以:她和她的兄弟姐妹是位於中國頂層的貴族。
他們的父親(宋任窮)曾追隨毛澤東一起鬧革命,在一九六八年失寵以前一直是中共的高級官員。宋昭昭十幾歲的時候她的父母被下放到中國北部的一家農場,她和她 的父母一起住在那裡的一個土坯房裡。一九七六年毛澤東死後,宋任窮將軍回到了國家領導層,他也被認為是中共八大元老「八老」之一。
宋任窮將軍的八個子女有五個居住在美國,其中三個女兒已經是美國公民,其中一個兒子也拿到了美國綠卡。美國——中國人眼中「美麗的國家」──吸引了很多中共元老的後代,宋任窮家族就是其中一個極佳的示範。
宋昭昭兄妹在美國發現了機會,不光是教育子女和自我教育的機會,他們說,還包括商業機會以及遠離文化大革命造成的混亂以及受迫害的機會。他們在這裡的生活和在中國的完全不同,在這裡他們可以隱姓埋名過簡單的生活,諷刺的是在這裡他們的生活更接近他們的父輩為之奮鬥的為人民大眾謀福利務以及平均主義價值觀。在很多事情上他們兄妹的選擇都和別的紅色家族截然相反,那些人在接受了常青藤教育以及華爾街的培訓後都在追求著各種特權。

毛時代比褲子上的補丁誰多

宋昭昭在位於安娜堡的家中開門的時候,身上穿著睡衣和栗色羊毛背心。她說,在文革之後追隨宋珍珍到安娜堡之前,她在中國學習了護理並參加工作。當時,三姐讓她改學經濟學。「我不喜歡,」她說。所以她回頭接著學習護理。
宋昭昭的大哥宋克荒,一年要到美國兩次和位於加利福尼亞州歐文市的家人在一起。宋克荒說有一些和他背景類似的太子黨攫取財富和權力,全然忘了他們的根在哪裡,他對此感到很難過。
「在毛澤東時代由於嚴格管制根本沒有什麼特權,」宋克荒在談起上世紀五十年代到六十年代他還在上學的時候說道,「在那個時候我們都比誰褲子上的補丁多,我們覺得補丁越多就越光榮。」
就在上個月,中國共產黨經過密室會議討論決定了十年一度的權力轉移,公布了新的領導班子。宋昭昭說她就是在那個時候第二次投了奧巴馬的票。
作為宋家(第二代)最年輕的孩子,她很明顯對於記者到安娜堡市來採訪她感到不舒服。她很謙和地花了幾分鐘回答記者的問題。她說她父親並沒有告訴他們該做什麼(不該做什麼)。「父親讓我們自己做決定,」昭昭說,「他想讓我們選擇自己的生活。」

三女兒宋珍珍:我恨死了文革  

傅士卓(Joseph Fewsmith),波士頓大學的一名研究中國政治精英的教授,他說,在一九六六年到一九七六年間的文化大革命期間使政治混亂達到了中共建國以來的頂點,很多家庭都遭受了監禁、下放以及羞辱。
彭博社研究表明,接受訪談的一百○三位紅色後人及他們的配偶,都在美國居住、工作或者學習過,其中有三分之一就讀過位於馬薩諸塞州為精英人士準備的預備班,進過常青藤學校,在紐約如摩根斯坦利之類的公司實習過。
傅士卓引用一個中國的成語說:「(他們懂得)狡兔三窟(的道理),他們會讓自己的資產配置多樣化,接受高等教育以保證在有任何意外發生的時候他們有條後路。」
文革期間,宋任窮家庭的處境很不妙,在那個十年中,毛澤東為了避免他的權威被挑戰,很多紅色家庭都被監禁,或者被下放到偏遠的地方。文革開始的時候宋昭昭才十一歲。不久,她哥哥宋克荒就被宣布為反革命,因此被北京清華大學的同學批鬥。
宋珍珍,宋任窮的三女兒,目前居住在舊金山,在接受電話訪問時正在騎著自行車,她說「我恨死文革了,所有人都是騙子,你不能相信任何人。你說了什麼話有人轉身就去告發。」


●宋彬彬在美國退休後,享有麻州每年18000 美元養老金。2003 年回國。和張玉鳳(右3)等參與紀念毛的飲宴(右2 宋)。

宋彬彬十年前回國處理歷史問題

他們的二姐宋彬彬是文革期間最有名的紅衛兵——由崇拜毛澤東的學生組成,她曾在一九六六年八月的天安門集會上把紅衛兵的臂章戴在毛澤東的胳膊上。她也被毛澤東賜名「要武」。就在那個月,宋彬彬所在的女子精英學校(師大女附中——譯注)的紅衛兵殺害了一名教師,宋彬彬也參與其中。
宋彬彬在文革結束後,過了幾年就去了美國,在波士頓地區安了家,並在畢業後成了婚,她的愛人是一位美國公民。根據學校和州的記錄顯示,拿到麻省理工的博士學位後,她進入馬薩諸塞州政府,在州環保局從事空氣質量評測工作。
她把她的兒子Jin Yan送去菲利普安多弗中學(Philips Academy Andover),這是一家久負盛名的學校,該校的校訓是Non Sibi,意思是「不以自我為中心」。之後他去了斯坦福大學。
稍微多說點財富的話題。《波士頓先驅報》根據州公共記錄法發布了一份「你工作繳納的稅金」數據庫,據數據庫記錄知道宋彬彬一年從馬薩諸塞州拿到一萬八千美元多點的養老金。
在美國待了三十多年後,現今已經六十五歲的宋彬彬,十年前回到了中國,開始處理她的歷史問題。在今年發表的一篇文章中她為自己辯解說,她曾經制止過針對她老師的攻擊。「現在我認識到,這種對生命的集體性漠視也是發生悲劇的重要原因,」她寫道,「我更期望我們的民族、我們的國家永遠不要再發生那樣的動亂和悲劇。」(譯注:直接引用中文原文)
在她的先生於二○一一年過世以後,她接手了位於北京的科技公司Copia。我們向該公司發出請求希望能採訪一下宋彬彬女士,她沒有任何回復。

宋珍珍相信「善有善報」

居住在舊金山金門公園附近著名的斜街的宋珍珍當年決定遠走海外。在中國時她才十幾歲,她說她努力接受教育。因為文革,她沒有上高中,而是被下放到了東南部的一個農場。她仍然進了海濱城市福州的一所大學並畢業。後來她繼續在北京求學,學習計算機以及衛星圖像處理。也是在福州,她遇到了自己的先生陳方,此人是陳雲的兒子。陳雲是八十年代早期中國的最高經濟決策人。和歐洲的貴族一樣,這兩個中國的頂層家族通過聯姻聯繫到了一起。不過這段婚姻沒有持續多久。
一到美國,宋珍珍就決定要留下來。
「我只想做我自己,我不需要察言觀色讓別人告訴我,我該說什麼不該說什麼,」她說,「我在文革中經歷過(那樣的日子)。」過去二十年她是在舊金山海灣度過的,從科技行業跳槽去了私營公司,曾服務於美國國際集團(AIG)。現在她創立了自己的電子商務初創公司,聚焦於在線支付。
現在她和一個美國人同居,他們是在一次跳舞的時候認識的,現在她已經開始研修佛教。她說:「我相信善有善報。」

大哥宋克荒:父親要求謹言慎行

他們的大哥宋克荒是一名中共黨員,在歐文市,宋克荒和妻子兒子擁有價值九十五萬美元的家,他的妻子兒子都是美國公民。宋克荒目前在中國南部的廣東省,在電話採訪中他說他也拿到了美國綠卡,擁有美國永久居住權。
六十七歲的宋克荒和陳元,陳雲的另外一個兒子也是現任的中國國家開發銀行董事長,一起上的北京四中,一所精英學校。宋克荒說他們的父親在家庭灌輸這樣一種理念,不要炫耀家庭背景。他父親死於二○○五年。
宋家還有一些成員仍然留在了中國,在國有企業中漸漸都身居高位,還成立了自己的公司。宋勤,宋家的長女,在東北經營一家奶製品公司,東北也是他們的父親管理過的地方。我們沒能聯繫到她。宋克荒管理一家房地產投資公司,在公司官網上把國開行和保利集團(600048)列為合作夥伴。國開行和保利集團曾經由另外 兩位元老鄧小平、王震的親屬運營。
據三十三歲的宋米勒(Miller Song)說,宋家的家長宋任窮教導他的後代要謹慎對待他們的關係和權力。宋任窮在為個人謀利益方面,對使用他的名號十分嚴厲,宋米勒說在他還是個孩子的時候就被告知絕對不允許告訴別人他家的背景,以免受到特殊待遇。如果他爺爺開車送他上學,在幾條街外他就要下車,就為了不讓別的孩子看到汽車,宋米勒如是說。
據宋米勒說,只有他最親近的朋友才知道他和紅色江山(中國革命遺產)的關係——儘管認識他祖父的人都會注意到他在Myspace的頁面上有一張照片標題就是「英雄」。

孫子宋米勒:和陳雲家一起長大

宋米勒說他第一次到美國時十二歲,在十五歲那年回國完成高中學業,然後在加州上的大學。他在郵件中寫道:「中國父母把孩子送到國外求學太正常了,因為他們相信美國可以提供更好的教育。」他從父母那裡借了一萬美元開了家公司,PatchTogether Inc。,生產塑料玩偶和個性化T恤。他說他為了和父母及朋友更親近,現在大部分時間都住在中國,這樣也方便他和產品代工廠聯繫。
「我不像那些很小就去美國的孩子那樣美國化,同時我也不是很中國化,」他在郵件中寫道,「我覺得兩種文化對我的影響,應該是五五開。」
儘管宋家已經搬出了中南海大院,自毛主席時代這裡就是人民共和國的領導層居住地,他們仍然是那個團體的一部分。據宋克荒和宋米勒說很多家庭的成員都是在一起從小玩到大,比如陳雲的後代。
陳雲的兒子陳元把他的兩個孩子都送到了美國上高中。他的女兒陳曉丹,英文名Sabrina,就職於一家香港的私營企業。二○○六年在巴黎舉辦的名媛成年舞會上,她身穿紫紅色Oscar de la Renta禮服第一次踏入社交場合。據舞會網站說明,當天來自比利時的卑爾根達埃勒公爵埃杜瓦爾(Count Edouard)是她的舞伴。
自從父母過世後,她回國的次數日見稀少——長時間空中旅行太難受了,她補充道。她喜歡安娜堡的多元化和這裡的文化,她也不知道自己將來還會不會回到中國。實際上她都不願意談論中國。因為看到安娜堡的經濟和房地產復甦,因為奧巴馬終結了伊拉克戰爭,她投了奧巴馬一票。但被問及中國的政治時,她避而不答。
「我家教育我,絕不能用他們的權力或關係來為自己謀利,」她說,「我們只是和其他人一樣生活。」
(本文原題《紅色家庭被美國同化,投票給奧巴馬》,由志願者翻譯並校對。本刊略加整理。)


http://www.open.com.hk/content.php?id=1744#.WJxHtDt97IU




级别: 骑士
只看该作者 沙发  发表于: 08-10
U.S. Family of Mao’s General Assimilates, Votes for Obama

Bloomberg News
2012年12月27日 GMT+8 上午5:00



The middle-aged Chinese woman who answers the door apologizes for the wait as she stands in the entryway, sporting leopard-print slippers. She’s been exercising, she says. Two tiny dogs, fuzzy like the slippers, yap at her feet.


The brick home has a well-tended lawn, a few shrubs dividing it from the neighbors. It’s a generous property, almost indistinguishable from the rest in this suburban development in Ann Arbor, Michigan.



Song Zhaozhao has a practical haircut and a quiet demeanor. A nurse at the University of Michigan’s hospital, she earns about $82,000 a year. She shares the house with her American husband, Alan, who used to work for Ford Motor Co.


Despite the trappings of middle-class America, she is anything but ordinary: She and her siblings are the closest thing China has to aristocracy.


Their father fought together with Mao Zedong in the Chinese revolution and was a top official until he fell from favor in 1968. Zhaozhao spent her teenage years with her parents in internal exile, sharing a mud-brick house on a labor farm in northern China. After Mao’s death in 1976, General Song Renqiong returned to the nation’s leadership, and is considered one of the “Eight Immortals” of the Communist Party who revived the shattered economy and society.


U.S. Citizens
At least five of the general’s eight children have lived in the U.S., with three daughters becoming citizens and a son obtaining his green card. Their family is the most extreme example of the pull that the U.S. -- “beautiful country” in Chinese -- has on the Immortals’ descendants. The fortunes, family ties and business interests of 103 people, the Immortals’ direct descendants and their spouses, were mapped by Bloomberg News in a survey published today.


The siblings found opportunity in the U.S., not just to educate their children and themselves, they say, but to start businesses and leave behind the chaos and trauma of the Cultural Revolution. In the country held up as the antithesis of China’s ideals, they could lead anonymous and simple lives that adhered, ironically, more closely to the values of public service and egalitarianism espoused by their Communist parents. Their choices in many cases contrast with those of some other Immortal families, who pursued lives of privilege after Ivy-League educations and Wall Street training.


Zhaozhao’s eldest brother, Song Kehuang, who spends time in the U.S. twice a year at his family home in Irvine, California, says he regrets the fact that the wealth and power of the princeling class made some of his counterparts forget their roots.


Patched Pants
“Chairman Mao’s strictness made sure there were basically no special privileges,” he says of his Beijing school days in the 1950s and 1960s. “Back then we compared the patches on our pants. The more patches we had, the more honorable we felt.”


As China’s Communist Party was anointing new leaders last month in a once-in-a-decade transition decided behind closed doors, Zhaozhao says she voted for U.S. President Barack Obama for a second time.


The youngest Song child, she is clearly uncomfortable that a reporter has come to find her in Ann Arbor. She relents enough to spend a few minutes answering questions. She says their father didn’t tell them what to do.


“He let us make our own decisions,” Zhaozhao says. “He wanted us to choose our own life.”


‘Clever Rabbit’
For families that lived at the pinnacle of the turbulent politics of Communist China’s beginnings, experiencing imprisonment, banishment and humiliation during the 1966-1976 Cultural Revolution, the U.S. offered an insurance policy, says Joseph Fewsmith, a professor at Boston University who studies China’s political elite.


About a third of the Immortals’ 103 descendants and their spouses lived, worked or studied in the U.S., attending elite Massachusetts prep schools and Ivy League universities and learning skills at the likes of Morgan Stanley in New York, the Bloomberg study showed.


“The clever rabbit has three holes,” Fewsmith says, quoting a Chinese proverb. “They can diversify their assets, get an education and ensure themselves an exit strategy if anything goes wrong.”


Things went badly wrong for the Songs during the Cultural Revolution, a decade when most of the Immortals were imprisoned or sent to remote parts of the country where they couldn’t pose a threat to Mao’s power.


Zhaozhao was 11 when the Cultural Revolution began. Her brother, Kehuang, was later denounced as a counter-revolutionary and hounded by classmates at Tsinghua University in Beijing.


No Trust
“I totally hated it,” Zhenzhen, a middle sister who lives in San Francisco, says in a telephone interview, taking the call while riding her bike. “Everybody was a liar -- you just couldn’t trust anybody. You say something and people turn around and report it.”


Their older sister, Binbin, became one of the most recognizable faces of the Red Guards -- the troops of students who worshipped Mao -- after pinning the group’s armband on Mao himself at a Tiananmen Square rally in August 1966. She earned a nickname from the chairman: Yaowu, meaning “be militant.”


That month, Red Guards at her elite girls’ school killed a teacher, with some accounts holding Binbin responsible.


Addressing History
Binbin left China a few years after the Cultural Revolution was over, settling in the Boston area with her husband, a U.S. citizen, as graduate students. After receiving a Ph.D. from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, she went to work for the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the air assessment branch of its Department of Environmental Protection, according to school and state records.


She sent her son, Jin Yan, to Phillips Academy Andover, a prestigious school whose motto is Non Sibi, or Not for Self. He then went on to Stanford University.


Little else speaks of wealth. She receives a pension from Massachusetts of a little more than $18,000 a year, according to the Boston Herald’s “Your tax dollars at work” database of records released under the state’s public records law.


After more than 30 years in the U.S., Binbin, now 65, returned to China in the past decade, and has begun to address her history. In an essay published this year, she defended herself, saying she tried to stop the attack on her teacher.


“I now realize that this collective disregard for life is an important reason for the tragedy,” she wrote. “I hope that our nation, our country, will never again go through such turmoil and tragedy.”


San Francisco
Binbin didn’t respond to an interview request made through her Beijing-based technology company, Copia, which she took over following the death of her U.S.-born Chinese husband in 2011.


Zhenzhen, who lives on one of San Francisco’s famously steep streets near Golden Gate Park, was determined to go abroad.


As a teenager in China, she says she worked to catch up on her education. She didn’t get a high-school degree because of the Cultural Revolution, when she was sent to be a farm worker in the southeast. She still managed to graduate from college in the coastal city of Fuzhou. She went on to graduate school in Beijing, studying computers and how to process satellite images.


It was in Fuzhou that she had met her husband, Chen Fang, the son of Chen Yun, China’s top economic official in the early 1980s. Like aristocrats in Europe, two of the country’s leading families were joined by marriage. It didn’t last.


Once in the U.S., Zhenzhen decided she wanted to stay.


‘Good Karma’
“I just wanted to be truly who I am, I don’t need to watch what I can say and what I cannot say,” she says. “I went through that in the Cultural Revolution.”


She has spent much of the past 20 years in the San Francisco Bay area, moving from the technology sector to private equity and working at companies including American International Group Inc. Now she’s creating a startup in e-commerce that’s focused on online payments.


She lives with an American she met at a dance and has studied Buddhism. “I believe in good karma,” she says.


Their brother, Song Kehuang, a Chinese Communist Party member, owns the $950,000 home in Irvine with his wife and son Miller, who are both American citizens. Kehuang holds a green card, conferring permanent residency in the U.S., he says in a telephone interview from southern China’s Guangdong province.


Kehuang, 67, went to Beijing’s elite No. 4 High School with Chen Yuan, another son of Chen Yun who’s now chairman of China Development Bank Corp. Kehuang says their father, who died in 2005, instilled in the family a mindset that they should never flaunt their family background.


Be Guarded
Some members of the Song family did stay in China, moving up the ranks of state-owned enterprises and setting up private companies. Song Qin, the oldest sister, ran a dairy company in northeastern China, the area their father once oversaw. She couldn’t be reached for comment. Kehuang himself heads a real-estate investment company that listed on its website China Development Bank and China Poly Group -- once run by relatives of Immortals Deng Xiaoping and Wang Zhen -- as partners.


The family patriarch, Song Renqiong, taught his offspring to be guarded about their connections and privilege, according to grandson Miller Song, 33.


His grandfather was “very strict” about not using his name for personal gain, and Miller was taught as a child in China never to tell others about his family background, he says, in order to avoid special treatment. If his grandfather gave him a ride to school, Miller says he got out a few blocks away, so the other children wouldn’t see the car.


Two Cultures
Only his closest childhood friends knew his link to China’s revolutionary legacy, according to Miller -- though anyone who recognizes his grandfather would notice a photograph of him under the title “heroes” on Miller’s MySpace page.


Miller Song says he first came to the U.S. for a year when he was 12, and returned at 15 to complete high school and college in California.


“It’s very common for Chinese parents to send their kids overseas for school because they believe that the U.S. offers better education,” he said in an e-mail.


He started a U.S. company, PatchTogether Inc., making plastic statuettes and custom T-shirts, with $10,000 borrowed from his parents. He says he lives mostly in China, to be closer to family and friends and to the factories that make PatchTogether’s products.


“I am not very Americanized as some of the kids that went in their earlier age and at the same time, I am not very Chinese either,” he said in the e-mail. “I think I am pretty even, 50-50 between the two cultures.”


Paris Debutante
Though the Song family moved out of the walled Zhongnanhai compound in central Beijing that has served as home to the leaders of the People’s Republic starting with Chairman Mao, they remain part of a community. Families that grew up together include the descendants of Chen Yun, Kehuang and Miller say.


Chen Yun’s son, Chen Yuan, sent both of his children to study in the U.S. beginning in high school. His daughter, Chen Xiaodan, also known as Sabrina, works at a private equity firm in Hong Kong. She was a debutante at the 2006 Bal des Debutantes in Paris, wearing a plum Oscar de la Renta gown. Count Edouard du Monceau de Bergendal from Belgium was her partner at the dance, according to the ball’s website.


When Zhaozhao answers the door in Ann Arbor, she’s wearing pajamas and a maroon fleece vest.


After the Cultural Revolution, she studied nursing and worked in China, she says, before following Zhenzhen to Ann Arbor. There, her sister urged her to study economics. “I didn’t like it,” she says, and so she went back to nursing.


Infrequent Visits
Since her parents passed away, her visits to China are infrequent -- discouraged by the long plane ride, she adds. She likes the diversity and culture in Ann Arbor, and doesn’t know if she’ll ever move back to China.


In fact, she resists talking about China. She voted for Obama because she saw the economy and the housing market rebounding in Ann Arbor, and because he ended the war in Iraq. But ask about Chinese politics and she evades the question.


“I was taught by my family never use their power or connections to do things for ourselves,” she says. “We’re just living in life as every other person.”

快速回复

限100 字节
如果您提交过一次失败了,可以用”恢复数据”来恢复帖子内容
 
上一个 下一个